library(rvest)
## Loading required package: xml2
library(tm)
## Loading required package: NLP
library(wordcloud)
## Loading required package: RColorBrewer
library(RColorBrewer)
library(dplyr)
## 
## Attaching package: 'dplyr'
## 
## The following objects are masked from 'package:stats':
## 
##     filter, lag
## 
## The following objects are masked from 'package:base':
## 
##     intersect, setdiff, setequal, union
library(syuzhet)
x <- read_html("https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gladys_Knight")

nodes <- html_nodes(x, "p")

nodes
## {xml_nodeset (39)}
##  [1] <p><b>Gladys Maria Knight</b> (born May 28, 1944), known as the "Em ...
##  [2] <p/>
##  [3] <p/>
##  [4] <p>Knight was born in <a href="/wiki/Atlanta,_Georgia" title="Atlan ...
##  [5] <p>In 1961, the group recorded "Every Beat Of My Heart" on the tiny ...
##  [6] <p>Gladys Knight &amp; the Pips joined the <a href="/wiki/Motown_Re ...
##  [7] <p>The act eventually left Motown for a better deal with <a href="/ ...
##  [8] <p>During this period of greater recognition, Knight made her motio ...
##  [9] <p>Knight and the Pips continued to have hits until the late 1970s, ...
## [10] <p>In the early 1980s, <a href="/wiki/Johnny_Mathis" title="Johnny  ...
## [11] <p>Signing with <a href="/wiki/Columbia_Records" title="Columbia Re ...
## [12] <p>In 1983 Gladys Knight and the Pips scored again with the hit "Sa ...
## [13] <p>In 1987, Knight decided to pursue a solo career and she and the  ...
## [14] <p>While still with the Pips, Gladys joined with <a href="/wiki/Dio ...
## [15] <p>Gladys released her third and most successful solo LP, <i><a hre ...
## [16] <p>Her fourth solo LP, <i>Just for You</i>, went <a href="/wiki/RIA ...
## [17] <p>In 1992 Vernon Ray Blue II, choir master of the year asked Glady ...
## [18] <p>Knight created and now directs the Mormon-themed choir <a href=" ...
## [19] <p>In April 2004, Knight performed during the <a href="/wiki/VH1" t ...
## [20] <p>In 2005, a duet between Knight and the late <a href="/wiki/Ray_C ...
## ...
text <- html_text(nodes, trim=TRUE)
text
##  [1] "Gladys Maria Knight (born May 28, 1944), known as the \"Empress of Soul\",[1][2] is an American recording artist, songwriter, businesswoman, humanitarian and author. A seven-time Grammy Award-winner,[3] she is best known for the hits she recorded during the 1960s and 1970s, for both the Motown and Buddah Records labels, with her group Gladys Knight & the Pips, which also included her brother Merald \"Bubba\" Knight and her cousins Edward Patten and William Guest."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      
##  [2] ""                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
##  [3] ""                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
##  [4] "Knight was born in Atlanta, Georgia, the daughter of Sarah Elizabeth (née Woods) and Merald Woodlow Knight, Sr., a postal worker.[4][5] She first achieved minor fame by winning Ted Mack's Original Amateur Hour TV show contest at the age of 7 in 1952. The following year, she, her brother Merald, sister Brenda, and cousins William and Elenor Guest formed a musical group called the Pips (named after another cousin, James \"Pip\" Woods). By the end of the decade, the act had begun to tour, and had replaced Brenda Knight and Eleanor Guest with Gladys Knight's cousin Edward Patten and friend Langston George."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
##  [5] "In 1961, the group recorded \"Every Beat Of My Heart\" on the tiny Atlanta Huntom label, which was picked up by Vee Jay. At the same time, the group signed with Bobby Robinson's Fury label. Both labels issued different versions of the song, with the Vee Jay/Huntom version outselling the Fury remake. With the success of their follow-up, \"Letter Full Of Tears\", Fury released their first album. They stayed with Fury through 1962, although the hits dried up. They signed with Larry Maxwell's Maxx label in 1964 and released several modest hits produced by Van McCoy, including the original version of \"Giving Up\" and \"Lovers Always Forgive\"."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
##  [6] "Gladys Knight & the Pips joined the Motown Records roster in 1966, and, although initially regarded as a second-string act, scored several major hit singles, including \"I Heard It Through the Grapevine\", (recorded first by Marvin Gaye but actually released a year later), \"Friendship Train\" (1969), \"If I Were Your Woman\" (1970), \"I Don't Want To Do Wrong\" (1971), the Grammy Award winning \"Neither One of Us (Wants to Be the First to Say Goodbye)\" (1972), and \"Daddy Could Swear (I Declare)\" (1973). In their early Motown career, Gladys Knight and the Pips toured as the opening act for Diana Ross and the Supremes. Gladys Knight stated in her memoirs that Ross kicked her off the tour because the audience's reception to Knight's soulful performance overshadowed her. Berry Gordy later told Gladys that she was giving his act a hard time.[6]"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
##  [7] "The act eventually left Motown for a better deal with Buddah Records in 1973, and achieved full-fledged success that year with hits such as the Grammy-winning \"Midnight Train to Georgia\" (#1 on the pop and R&B chart), \"I've Got to Use My Imagination,\" and \"You're the Best Thing That Ever Happened to Me\". In the summer of 1974, Knight and the Pips recorded the soundtrack to the successful film Claudine with producer Curtis Mayfield. The act was particularly successful in Europe, and especially the United Kingdom. However, a number of the Buddah singles became hits in the UK long after their success in the US. For example, \"Midnight Train to Georgia\" hit the UK pop charts Top 5 in the summer of 1976, a full three years after its success in the U.S."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
##  [8] "During this period of greater recognition, Knight made her motion picture acting debut in the film, Pipe Dreams, a romantic drama set in Alaska. The film failed at the box-office, but Knight did receive a Golden Globe Best New Actress nomination."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
##  [9] "Knight and the Pips continued to have hits until the late 1970s, when they were forced to record separately due to legal issues, resulting in Knight's first solo LP recordings--Miss Gladys Knight (1978) on Buddah and Gladys Knight (1979) on Columbia Records. Having divorced James Newman II in 1973, Knight married Barry Hankerson (future uncle of R&B singer Aaliyah), then Detroit mayor Coleman Young's executive aide. Knight and Hankerson remained married for four years, during which time they had a son, Shanga Ali. Upon their divorce, Hankerson and Knight were embroiled in a heated custody battle over Shanga Ali."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
## [10] "In the early 1980s, Johnny Mathis invited Gladys to record two duets – \"When A Child Is Born\" (previously a hit for Mathis) and \"The Lord's Prayer\"."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
## [11] "Signing with Columbia Records in 1980 and restored to its familiar quartet form, Gladys Knight & the Pips began releasing new material. The act enlisted former Motown producers Nickolas Ashford and Valerie Simpson for their first two albums--About Love (1980) and Touch (1981). During this period, Knight kicked a gambling addiction to the game baccarat."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
## [12] "In 1983 Gladys Knight and the Pips scored again with the hit \"Save The Overtime For Me\". The song, under the artistic direction of Leon Sylvers III (known for collaborating on Shalamar hits), was done in a soulful boogie style. The single was released from their LP \"Visions\" and reached number sixty-six on the Hot 100, but was more successful on the R&B where it hit number one for a single week in mid 1983. The single was the first time the group hit number one on the R&B chart since 1974."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
## [13] "In 1987, Knight decided to pursue a solo career and she and the Pips recorded their final LP together, All Our Love (1987), for MCA Records. Its infectious lead single, \"Love Overboard\", was a #1 R&B hit and won another Grammy for the act as well. After a successful 1988 tour, the Pips retired and Knight began her solo career. Gladys Knight & the Pips were inducted into the Georgia Music Hall of Fame[7] in 1989 and into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame[8] in 1996."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
## [14] "While still with the Pips, Gladys joined with Dionne Warwick, Stevie Wonder, and Elton John on the 1986 AIDS benefit single, \"That's What Friends Are For\", a triple #1 mega-hit, which won a Grammy for Best Pop Performance By A Duo Or Group With Vocal. In 1989, she recorded the title track for the James Bond movie Licence to Kill, a Top 10 hit in the UK and Germany."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
## [15] "Gladys released her third and most successful solo LP, Good Woman, on MCA in 1991. It hit #1 on the R&B album chart and featured the #2 R&B hit \"Men\". It also reached #45 on the main Billboard album chart – her all time highest showing. The album also featured \"Superwoman\", written by Babyface and featuring Dionne Warwick and Patti LaBelle. The track was also nominated for a Grammy Award. Knight and LaBelle would collaborate the same year on \"I Don't Do Duets\", a duet with Patti LaBelle from LaBelle's album Burnin'."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          
## [16] "Her fourth solo LP, Just for You, went Gold and was nominated for the 1995 Grammy Award for Best R&B Album.[9]"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
## [17] "In 1992 Vernon Ray Blue II, choir master of the year asked Gladys to record his first single \"He Lifted Me\""                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
## [18] "Knight created and now directs the Mormon-themed choir Saints Unified Voices.[10] SUV has released a Grammy Award-winning CD titled One Voice, and occasionally performs at LDS church firesides."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
## [19] "In April 2004, Knight performed during the VH1's benefit concert Divas Live 2004 alongside Ashanti, Cindy Lauper, Jessica Simpson, Joss Stone and Patti LaBelle, in support of the Save the Music Foundation.[11]"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
## [20] "In 2005, a duet between Knight and the late Ray Charles of \"You Were There\" was released on Charles' duets album Genius & Friends."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
## [21] "In 2008, a duet between Knight and Johnny Mathis was released on Mathis' album A Night to Remember."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      
## [22] "In the spring of 2008, Knight appeared alongside Chaka Khan, Patti Labelle and Diana Ross at the 'Divas with Heart' concert in aid of cardiac research, at New York's Radio City Hall."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
## [23] "In 2008 Gladys, Jack Black, Robert Downey Jr. and Ben Stiller performed on American Idol to raise money for charity. In March 2010, Randy Jackson mentioned on a new episode of the same show that he is back in the studio with Gladys Knight working on a new album."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
## [24] "In 2009 Knight sang \"His Eye Is On The Sparrow\" and \"The Lord's Prayer\" at the funeral service for Michael Jackson.[12]"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
## [25] "In December 2010, Knight released the single \"Settle\"."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
## [26] "In September 2011, a new, updated recording of Tom Jones' 1970 classic I (Who Have Nothing) was released on iTunes and Amazon.[13]"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
## [27] "In 2013, Knight recorded the Lenny Kravitz written and produced song \"You And I Ain't Nothin' No More\" for the soundtrack from Lee Daniels' motion picture The Butler. The song was added to the movie's soundtrack of older songs by various artists so that the producers had a song to compete in the Best Song from a Motion Picture category at the Academy Awards.[14]"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
## [28] "Where My Heart Belongs (2014) marked her 30th top 40 R&B album, including work by Gladys Knight & the Pips.[15] In a 2014, interview she expressed a hope that women would \"Stand Up\" and stop selling sex in the music/entertainment industry. She commented that the growing trend saddened her heart and that she had been taught to dress respectfully for her audiences . . . \"not take it off, put it on.\"[16] Knight is ranked number eighteen on VH1 network's list of the 100 Greatest Women of Rock."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
## [29] "In October 2009, Knight started her farewell tour of the United Kingdom[17] which featured Tito Jackson as her supporting act and special appearances by Dionne Warwick."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
## [30] "The UK Farewell Tour featured higher production value than previous \"Gladys Knight, a mic and a light\" appearances by Gladys in the UK. A glossy program was available and the show featured pre-produced animation on large on-stage screens. The tour was promoted by an appearance on the TV program Later... with Jools Holland where Knight performed \"If I Were Your Woman\" and \"Help Me Make It Through the Night\"."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
## [31] "At select performances on the UK Farewell Tour recordings of the concerts were made available for sale on USB flash drives.[18]"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          
## [32] "In 1976, Knight made her acting debut as the lead in the film Pipe Dreams for which she was nominated for a Golden Globe Award for New Star of the Year – Actress. In 2003, she had a short role in the hit movie Hollywood Homicide, which starred Harrison Ford and Josh Hartnett. In 2009, Knight was featured in Tyler Perry's I Can Do Bad All By Myself, the film version of a play he had dramatized, and performed her song \"The Need To Be\" from the 1974 album I Feel a Song."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
## [33] "Knight guest-starred on several television series throughout the 1980s and 1990s, with roles on Benson, The Jeffersons, A Different World, Living Single, The Jamie Foxx Show, and New York Undercover. In 1985, she co-starred on the CBS sitcom Charlie & Co. alongside comedian Flip Wilson, which lasted for one season. In April 2009, she made a special guest appearance, and performed a song, on Tyler Perry's House Of Payne. Knight has also made a number of television cameo appearances, including Las Vegas and 30 Rock. In 2012, she began a recurring role in the syndicated sitcom The First Family."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
## [34] "In 2012, Knight competed on the fourteenth season of ABC's Dancing with the Stars, partnered with Tristan MacManus. They were eliminated on April 24 after losing a \"dance duel\" to Disney Channel star Roshon Fegan and partner Chelsie Hightower, ironically on the show's \"Motown Week.\"[19]"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      
## [35] "Knight's son Shanga owns a chain of chicken and waffles restaurants based in Atlanta, bearing her name.[20] Gladys Knight & Ron Winans' Chicken & Waffles currently have three locations in the Atlanta area. One location was featured on the Travel Channel original series Man v. Food.[21]"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
## [36] "Knight has been married four times and has three children. In 1960, she married her high school sweetheart, James Newman. They had one son, James \"Jimmy\" Newman (1962–1999). She retired from the road to raise their child while the Pips toured on their own. In 1963, after having her only daughter, Kenya, Knight returned to recording with the Pips in order to support her family. In the early 1960s, Gladys, James, and the Pips moved to Detroit, Michigan. Knight and her family lived on Sherbourne in Sherwood Forest, an upscale neighborhood on Detroit's West Side. She also resided on LaSalle for a time. Her children attended Gesu Catholic Grade School. James and Knight divorced in 1973. In 1974, Knight married producer and Blackground Records founder Barry Hankerson, who is the uncle of the late R&B singer Aaliyah, in Detroit. Around 1977, they relocated to Atlanta. (The Pips, however, remained in Detroit.) The couple had one son, Shanga Hankerson, and divorced in 1981. Knight married motivational speaker Les Brown[22] in 1995, but they separated and divorced in 1997."
## [37] "Also in 1997, she was baptized into The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, following her son and daughter.[23] She had occasionally teased LDS Church president, the late Gordon B. Hinckley, that his flock needs to inject some \"pep\" into their music.[24] Knight married her husband, William McDowell, in 2001. They have sixteen grandchildren and six great-grandchildren."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
## [38] "In 1996, Gladys Knight & the Pips were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. One year before, Knight had received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. In 2007, Knight received the Society of Singers ELLA Award at which time she was declared the \"Empress of Soul\". She is listed on Rolling Stone's list of the Greatest Singers of All Time.[25]"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
## [39] "Gladys Knight and the Pips earned an additional three Grammy Awards."

Sentiment analysis

Extract sentences

s_v <- get_sentences(text)
s_v                                                                                                           
##   [1] "Gladys Maria Knight (born May 28, 1944), known as the \"Empress of Soul\",[1][2] is an American recording artist, songwriter, businesswoman, humanitarian and author."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
##   [2] "A seven-time Grammy Award-winner,[3] she is best known for the hits she recorded during the 1960s and 1970s, for both the Motown and Buddah Records labels, with her group Gladys Knight & the Pips, which also included her brother Merald \"Bubba\" Knight and her cousins Edward Patten and William Guest."                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
##   [3] "Knight was born in Atlanta, Georgia, the daughter of Sarah Elizabeth (née Woods) and Merald Woodlow Knight, Sr., a postal worker.[4][5]"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
##   [4] "She first achieved minor fame by winning Ted Mack's Original Amateur Hour TV show contest at the age of 7 in 1952."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
##   [5] "The following year, she, her brother Merald, sister Brenda, and cousins William and Elenor Guest formed a musical group called the Pips (named after another cousin, James \"Pip\" Woods)."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      
##   [6] "By the end of the decade, the act had begun to tour, and had replaced Brenda Knight and Eleanor Guest with Gladys Knight's cousin Edward Patten and friend Langston George."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
##   [7] "In 1961, the group recorded \"Every Beat Of My Heart\" on the tiny Atlanta Huntom label, which was picked up by Vee Jay."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
##   [8] "At the same time, the group signed with Bobby Robinson's Fury label."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
##   [9] "Both labels issued different versions of the song, with the Vee Jay/Huntom version outselling the Fury remake."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
##  [10] "With the success of their follow-up, \"Letter Full Of Tears\", Fury released their first album."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
##  [11] "They stayed with Fury through 1962, although the hits dried up."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
##  [12] "They signed with Larry Maxwell's Maxx label in 1964 and released several modest hits produced by Van McCoy, including the original version of \"Giving Up\" and \"Lovers Always Forgive\"."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      
##  [13] "Gladys Knight & the Pips joined the Motown Records roster in 1966, and, although initially regarded as a second-string act, scored several major hit singles, including \"I Heard It Through the Grapevine\", (recorded first by Marvin Gaye but actually released a year later), \"Friendship Train\" (1969), \"If I Were Your Woman\" (1970), \"I Don't Want To Do Wrong\" (1971), the Grammy Award winning \"Neither One of Us (Wants to Be the First to Say Goodbye)\" (1972), and \"Daddy Could Swear (I Declare)\" (1973)."
##  [14] "In their early Motown career, Gladys Knight and the Pips toured as the opening act for Diana Ross and the Supremes."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
##  [15] "Gladys Knight stated in her memoirs that Ross kicked her off the tour because the audience's reception to Knight's soulful performance overshadowed her."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
##  [16] "Berry Gordy later told Gladys that she was giving his act a hard time.[6]"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
##  [17] "The act eventually left Motown for a better deal with Buddah Records in 1973, and achieved full-fledged success that year with hits such as the Grammy-winning \"Midnight Train to Georgia\" (#1 on the pop and R&B chart), \"I've Got to Use My Imagination,\" and \"You're the Best Thing That Ever Happened to Me\"."                                                                                                                                                                                                         
##  [18] "In the summer of 1974, Knight and the Pips recorded the soundtrack to the successful film Claudine with producer Curtis Mayfield."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
##  [19] "The act was particularly successful in Europe, and especially the United Kingdom."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
##  [20] "However, a number of the Buddah singles became hits in the UK long after their success in the US."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
##  [21] "For example, \"Midnight Train to Georgia\" hit the UK pop charts Top 5 in the summer of 1976, a full three years after its success in the U.S."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
##  [22] "During this period of greater recognition, Knight made her motion picture acting debut in the film, Pipe Dreams, a romantic drama set in Alaska."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
##  [23] "The film failed at the box-office, but Knight did receive a Golden Globe Best New Actress nomination."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
##  [24] "Knight and the Pips continued to have hits until the late 1970s, when they were forced to record separately due to legal issues, resulting in Knight's first solo LP recordings--Miss Gladys Knight (1978) on Buddah and Gladys Knight (1979) on Columbia Records."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
##  [25] "Having divorced James Newman II in 1973, Knight married Barry Hankerson (future uncle of R&B singer Aaliyah), then Detroit mayor Coleman Young's executive aide."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
##  [26] "Knight and Hankerson remained married for four years, during which time they had a son, Shanga Ali."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
##  [27] "Upon their divorce, Hankerson and Knight were embroiled in a heated custody battle over Shanga Ali."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
##  [28] "In the early 1980s, Johnny Mathis invited Gladys to record two duets – \"When A Child Is Born\" (previously a hit for Mathis) and \"The Lord's Prayer\"."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
##  [29] "Signing with Columbia Records in 1980 and restored to its familiar quartet form, Gladys Knight & the Pips began releasing new material."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
##  [30] "The act enlisted former Motown producers Nickolas Ashford and Valerie Simpson for their first two albums--About Love (1980) and Touch (1981)."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
##  [31] "During this period, Knight kicked a gambling addiction to the game baccarat."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    
##  [32] "In 1983 Gladys Knight and the Pips scored again with the hit \"Save The Overtime For Me\"."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      
##  [33] "The song, under the artistic direction of Leon Sylvers III (known for collaborating on Shalamar hits), was done in a soulful boogie style."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      
##  [34] "The single was released from their LP \"Visions\" and reached number sixty-six on the Hot 100, but was more successful on the R&B where it hit number one for a single week in mid 1983."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
##  [35] "The single was the first time the group hit number one on the R&B chart since 1974."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
##  [36] "In 1987, Knight decided to pursue a solo career and she and the Pips recorded their final LP together, All Our Love (1987), for MCA Records."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    
##  [37] "Its infectious lead single, \"Love Overboard\", was a #1 R&B hit and won another Grammy for the act as well."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    
##  [38] "After a successful 1988 tour, the Pips retired and Knight began her solo career."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
##  [39] "Gladys Knight & the Pips were inducted into the Georgia Music Hall of Fame[7] in 1989 and into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame[8] in 1996."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
##  [40] "While still with the Pips, Gladys joined with Dionne Warwick, Stevie Wonder, and Elton John on the 1986 AIDS benefit single, \"That's What Friends Are For\", a triple #1 mega-hit, which won a Grammy for Best Pop Performance By A Duo Or Group With Vocal."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
##  [41] "In 1989, she recorded the title track for the James Bond movie Licence to Kill, a Top 10 hit in the UK and Germany."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
##  [42] "Gladys released her third and most successful solo LP, Good Woman, on MCA in 1991."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
##  [43] "It hit #1 on the R&B album chart and featured the #2 R&B hit \"Men\"."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
##  [44] "It also reached #45 on the main Billboard album chart – her all time highest showing."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
##  [45] "The album also featured \"Superwoman\", written by Babyface and featuring Dionne Warwick and Patti LaBelle."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
##  [46] "The track was also nominated for a Grammy Award."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
##  [47] "Knight and LaBelle would collaborate the same year on \"I Don't Do Duets\", a duet with Patti LaBelle from LaBelle's album Burnin'."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
##  [48] "Her fourth solo LP, Just for You, went Gold and was nominated for the 1995 Grammy Award for Best R&B Album.[9]"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
##  [49] "In 1992 Vernon Ray Blue II, choir master of the year asked Gladys to record his first single \"He Lifted Me\"\nKnight created and now directs the Mormon-themed choir Saints Unified Voices.[10]"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
##  [50] "SUV has released a Grammy Award-winning CD titled One Voice, and occasionally performs at LDS church firesides."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
##  [51] "In April 2004, Knight performed during the VH1's benefit concert Divas Live 2004 alongside Ashanti, Cindy Lauper, Jessica Simpson, Joss Stone and Patti LaBelle, in support of the Save the Music Foundation.[11]"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
##  [52] "In 2005, a duet between Knight and the late Ray Charles of \"You Were There\" was released on Charles' duets album Genius & Friends."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
##  [53] "In 2008, a duet between Knight and Johnny Mathis was released on Mathis' album A Night to Remember."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
##  [54] "In the spring of 2008, Knight appeared alongside Chaka Khan, Patti Labelle and Diana Ross at the 'Divas with Heart' concert in aid of cardiac research, at New York's Radio City Hall."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          
##  [55] "In 2008 Gladys, Jack Black, Robert Downey Jr. and Ben Stiller performed on American Idol to raise money for charity."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
##  [56] "In March 2010, Randy Jackson mentioned on a new episode of the same show that he is back in the studio with Gladys Knight working on a new album."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
##  [57] "In 2009 Knight sang \"His Eye Is On The Sparrow\" and \"The Lord's Prayer\" at the funeral service for Michael Jackson.[12]"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
##  [58] "In December 2010, Knight released the single \"Settle\"."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
##  [59] "In September 2011, a new, updated recording of Tom Jones' 1970 classic I (Who Have Nothing) was released on iTunes and Amazon.[13]"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
##  [60] "In 2013, Knight recorded the Lenny Kravitz written and produced song \"You And I Ain't Nothin' No More\" for the soundtrack from Lee Daniels' motion picture The Butler."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
##  [61] "The song was added to the movie's soundtrack of older songs by various artists so that the producers had a song to compete in the Best Song from a Motion Picture category at the Academy Awards.[14]"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
##  [62] "Where My Heart Belongs (2014) marked her 30th top 40 R&B album, including work by Gladys Knight & the Pips.[15]"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
##  [63] "In a 2014, interview she expressed a hope that women would \"Stand Up\" and stop selling sex in the music/entertainment industry."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
##  [64] "She commented that the growing trend saddened her heart and that she had been taught to dress respectfully for her audiences . . ."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
##  [65] "\"not take it off, put it on.\"[16]"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
##  [66] "Knight is ranked number eighteen on VH1 network's list of the 100 Greatest Women of Rock."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
##  [67] "In October 2009, Knight started her farewell tour of the United Kingdom[17] which featured Tito Jackson as her supporting act and special appearances by Dionne Warwick."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
##  [68] "The UK Farewell Tour featured higher production value than previous \"Gladys Knight, a mic and a light\" appearances by Gladys in the UK."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
##  [69] "A glossy program was available and the show featured pre-produced animation on large on-stage screens."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          
##  [70] "The tour was promoted by an appearance on the TV program Later... with Jools Holland where Knight performed \"If I Were Your Woman\" and \"Help Me Make It Through the Night\"."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
##  [71] "At select performances on the UK Farewell Tour recordings of the concerts were made available for sale on USB flash drives.[18]"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
##  [72] "In 1976, Knight made her acting debut as the lead in the film Pipe Dreams for which she was nominated for a Golden Globe Award for New Star of the Year – Actress."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
##  [73] "In 2003, she had a short role in the hit movie Hollywood Homicide, which starred Harrison Ford and Josh Hartnett."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
##  [74] "In 2009, Knight was featured in Tyler Perry's I Can Do Bad All By Myself, the film version of a play he had dramatized, and performed her song \"The Need To Be\" from the 1974 album I Feel a Song."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
##  [75] "Knight guest-starred on several television series throughout the 1980s and 1990s, with roles on Benson, The Jeffersons, A Different World, Living Single, The Jamie Foxx Show, and New York Undercover."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
##  [76] "In 1985, she co-starred on the CBS sitcom Charlie & Co. alongside comedian Flip Wilson, which lasted for one season."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
##  [77] "In April 2009, she made a special guest appearance, and performed a song, on Tyler Perry's House Of Payne."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      
##  [78] "Knight has also made a number of television cameo appearances, including Las Vegas and 30 Rock."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
##  [79] "In 2012, she began a recurring role in the syndicated sitcom The First Family."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
##  [80] "In 2012, Knight competed on the fourteenth season of ABC's Dancing with the Stars, partnered with Tristan MacManus."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
##  [81] "They were eliminated on April 24 after losing a \"dance duel\" to Disney Channel star Roshon Fegan and partner Chelsie Hightower, ironically on the show's \"Motown Week.\"[19]"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
##  [82] "Knight's son Shanga owns a chain of chicken and waffles restaurants based in Atlanta, bearing her name.[20]"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
##  [83] "Gladys Knight & Ron Winans' Chicken & Waffles currently have three locations in the Atlanta area."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
##  [84] "One location was featured on the Travel Channel original series Man v. Food.[21]"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
##  [85] "Knight has been married four times and has three children."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      
##  [86] "In 1960, she married her high school sweetheart, James Newman."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
##  [87] "They had one son, James \"Jimmy\" Newman (1962–1999)."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
##  [88] "She retired from the road to raise their child while the Pips toured on their own."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
##  [89] "In 1963, after having her only daughter, Kenya, Knight returned to recording with the Pips in order to support her family."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      
##  [90] "In the early 1960s, Gladys, James, and the Pips moved to Detroit, Michigan."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
##  [91] "Knight and her family lived on Sherbourne in Sherwood Forest, an upscale neighborhood on Detroit's West Side."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
##  [92] "She also resided on LaSalle for a time."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
##  [93] "Her children attended Gesu Catholic Grade School."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
##  [94] "James and Knight divorced in 1973."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
##  [95] "In 1974, Knight married producer and Blackground Records founder Barry Hankerson, who is the uncle of the late R&B singer Aaliyah, in Detroit."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
##  [96] "Around 1977, they relocated to Atlanta."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
##  [97] "(The Pips, however, remained in Detroit.)"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
##  [98] "The couple had one son, Shanga Hankerson, and divorced in 1981."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
##  [99] "Knight married motivational speaker Les Brown[22] in 1995, but they separated and divorced in 1997."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
## [100] "Also in 1997, she was baptized into The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, following her son and daughter.[23]"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
## [101] "She had occasionally teased LDS Church president, the late Gordon B. Hinckley, that his flock needs to inject some \"pep\" into their music.[24]"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
## [102] "Knight married her husband, William McDowell, in 2001."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          
## [103] "They have sixteen grandchildren and six great-grandchildren."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    
## [104] "In 1996, Gladys Knight & the Pips were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
## [105] "One year before, Knight had received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      
## [106] "In 2007, Knight received the Society of Singers ELLA Award at which time she was declared the \"Empress of Soul\"."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
## [107] "She is listed on Rolling Stone's list of the Greatest Singers of All Time.[25]"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
## [108] "Gladys Knight and the Pips earned an additional three Grammy Awards."

Checking format

class(s_v)
## [1] "character"
str(s_v)
##  chr [1:108] "Gladys Maria Knight (born May 28, 1944), known as the \"Empress of Soul\",[1][2] is an American recording artist, songwriter, b"| __truncated__ ...
head(s_v)
## [1] "Gladys Maria Knight (born May 28, 1944), known as the \"Empress of Soul\",[1][2] is an American recording artist, songwriter, businesswoman, humanitarian and author."                                                                                                                                        
## [2] "A seven-time Grammy Award-winner,[3] she is best known for the hits she recorded during the 1960s and 1970s, for both the Motown and Buddah Records labels, with her group Gladys Knight & the Pips, which also included her brother Merald \"Bubba\" Knight and her cousins Edward Patten and William Guest."
## [3] "Knight was born in Atlanta, Georgia, the daughter of Sarah Elizabeth (née Woods) and Merald Woodlow Knight, Sr., a postal worker.[4][5]"                                                                                                                                                                      
## [4] "She first achieved minor fame by winning Ted Mack's Original Amateur Hour TV show contest at the age of 7 in 1952."                                                                                                                                                                                           
## [5] "The following year, she, her brother Merald, sister Brenda, and cousins William and Elenor Guest formed a musical group called the Pips (named after another cousin, James \"Pip\" Woods)."                                                                                                                   
## [6] "By the end of the decade, the act had begun to tour, and had replaced Brenda Knight and Eleanor Guest with Gladys Knight's cousin Edward Patten and friend Langston George."
sentiment_vector <- get_sentiment(s_v, method = "bing")
sentiment_vector
##   [1]  0  3  0  2  0  0  0 -1 -1  0 -1  1  1  0  1 -1  4  1  1  1  2  1  1
##  [24] -2  0  0 -1  0  1  1  0  0  1  2  0  1  4  1  1  4  0  2  0  0  0  1
##  [47]  0  3  1  2  2  1  0  0  1  0  0  0  1  0  2  2  0  1  0  1  1  0  1
##  [70]  0  1  3  0 -1  0  0  0  0  0  0 -2  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  1  0  1  0
##  [93]  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  1  1  1  1  1  1

Summary statistics of the sentiment vector

mean(sentiment_vector)
## [1] 0.5648148
summary(sentiment_vector)
##    Min. 1st Qu.  Median    Mean 3rd Qu.    Max. 
## -2.0000  0.0000  0.0000  0.5648  1.0000  4.0000

Plotting sentiments through time (positive value = positive sentiment)

plot(sentiment_vector, type ="l", main ="Plot Trajectory", xlab = "Narrative Time", ylab = "Emotional Valence") 

Extract NRC

nrc_data <- get_nrc_sentiment(s_v)

Extract the saddest sentences

sad_items <- which(nrc_data$sadness > 0)

s_v[sad_items]
##  [1] "She first achieved minor fame by winning Ted Mack's Original Amateur Hour TV show contest at the age of 7 in 1952."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
##  [2] "The following year, she, her brother Merald, sister Brenda, and cousins William and Elenor Guest formed a musical group called the Pips (named after another cousin, James \"Pip\" Woods)."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      
##  [3] "At the same time, the group signed with Bobby Robinson's Fury label."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
##  [4] "Both labels issued different versions of the song, with the Vee Jay/Huntom version outselling the Fury remake."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
##  [5] "With the success of their follow-up, \"Letter Full Of Tears\", Fury released their first album."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
##  [6] "They stayed with Fury through 1962, although the hits dried up."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
##  [7] "Gladys Knight & the Pips joined the Motown Records roster in 1966, and, although initially regarded as a second-string act, scored several major hit singles, including \"I Heard It Through the Grapevine\", (recorded first by Marvin Gaye but actually released a year later), \"Friendship Train\" (1969), \"If I Were Your Woman\" (1970), \"I Don't Want To Do Wrong\" (1971), the Grammy Award winning \"Neither One of Us (Wants to Be the First to Say Goodbye)\" (1972), and \"Daddy Could Swear (I Declare)\" (1973)."
##  [8] "The act eventually left Motown for a better deal with Buddah Records in 1973, and achieved full-fledged success that year with hits such as the Grammy-winning \"Midnight Train to Georgia\" (#1 on the pop and R&B chart), \"I've Got to Use My Imagination,\" and \"You're the Best Thing That Ever Happened to Me\"."                                                                                                                                                                                                         
##  [9] "Knight and the Pips continued to have hits until the late 1970s, when they were forced to record separately due to legal issues, resulting in Knight's first solo LP recordings--Miss Gladys Knight (1978) on Buddah and Gladys Knight (1979) on Columbia Records."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
## [10] "Upon their divorce, Hankerson and Knight were embroiled in a heated custody battle over Shanga Ali."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
## [11] "Its infectious lead single, \"Love Overboard\", was a #1 R&B hit and won another Grammy for the act as well."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    
## [12] "Gladys Knight & the Pips were inducted into the Georgia Music Hall of Fame[7] in 1989 and into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame[8] in 1996."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
## [13] "In 1989, she recorded the title track for the James Bond movie Licence to Kill, a Top 10 hit in the UK and Germany."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
## [14] "In 1992 Vernon Ray Blue II, choir master of the year asked Gladys to record his first single \"He Lifted Me\"\nKnight created and now directs the Mormon-themed choir Saints Unified Voices.[10]"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
## [15] "SUV has released a Grammy Award-winning CD titled One Voice, and occasionally performs at LDS church firesides."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
## [16] "In April 2004, Knight performed during the VH1's benefit concert Divas Live 2004 alongside Ashanti, Cindy Lauper, Jessica Simpson, Joss Stone and Patti LaBelle, in support of the Save the Music Foundation.[11]"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
## [17] "In 2005, a duet between Knight and the late Ray Charles of \"You Were There\" was released on Charles' duets album Genius & Friends."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
## [18] "In 2008 Gladys, Jack Black, Robert Downey Jr. and Ben Stiller performed on American Idol to raise money for charity."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
## [19] "In 2009 Knight sang \"His Eye Is On The Sparrow\" and \"The Lord's Prayer\" at the funeral service for Michael Jackson.[12]"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
## [20] "The song was added to the movie's soundtrack of older songs by various artists so that the producers had a song to compete in the Best Song from a Motion Picture category at the Academy Awards.[14]"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
## [21] "In a 2014, interview she expressed a hope that women would \"Stand Up\" and stop selling sex in the music/entertainment industry."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
## [22] "In 2003, she had a short role in the hit movie Hollywood Homicide, which starred Harrison Ford and Josh Hartnett."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
## [23] "In 2009, Knight was featured in Tyler Perry's I Can Do Bad All By Myself, the film version of a play he had dramatized, and performed her song \"The Need To Be\" from the 1974 album I Feel a Song."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
## [24] "They were eliminated on April 24 after losing a \"dance duel\" to Disney Channel star Roshon Fegan and partner Chelsie Hightower, ironically on the show's \"Motown Week.\"[19]"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
## [25] "In 1960, she married her high school sweetheart, James Newman."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
## [26] "In 1974, Knight married producer and Blackground Records founder Barry Hankerson, who is the uncle of the late R&B singer Aaliyah, in Detroit."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
## [27] "She had occasionally teased LDS Church president, the late Gordon B. Hinckley, that his flock needs to inject some \"pep\" into their music.[24]"

Display the main emotions expressed in the text

barplot(sort(colSums(prop.table(nrc_data[, 1:8]))), horiz = T, cex.names = 0.7, las = 1, main = "Emotions", xlab = "Percentage", col = 1:8)

MLK Speech : “I have a dream”

library(syuzhet)

mlk <- "I am happy to join with you today in what will go down in history as the greatest demonstration for freedom in the history of our nation.

Five score years ago, a great American, in whose symbolic shadow we stand today, signed the Emancipation Proclamation. This momentous decree came as a great beacon light of hope to millions of Negro slaves who had been seared in the flames of withering injustice. It came as a joyous daybreak to end the long night of their captivity.

But one hundred years later, the Negro still is not free. One hundred years later, the life of the Negro is still sadly crippled by the manacles of segregation and the chains of discrimination. One hundred years later, the Negro lives on a lonely island of poverty in the midst of a vast ocean of material prosperity. One hundred years later, the Negro is still languished in the corners of American society and finds himself an exile in his own land. And so we've come here today to dramatize a shameful condition.

In a sense we've come to our nation's capital to cash a check. When the architects of our republic wrote the magnificent words of the Constitution and the Declaration of Independence, they were signing a promissory note to which every American was to fall heir. This note was a promise that all men, yes, black men as well as white men, would be guaranteed the unalienable Rights of Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. It is obvious today that America has defaulted on this promissory note, insofar as her citizens of color are concerned. Instead of honoring this sacred obligation, America has given the Negro people a bad check, a check which has come back marked insufficient funds.

But we refuse to believe that the bank of justice is bankrupt. We refuse to believe that there are insufficient funds in the great vaults of opportunity of this nation. And so, we've come to cash this check, a check that will give us upon demand the riches of freedom and the security of justice.

We have also come to this hallowed spot to remind America of the fierce urgency of Now. This is no time to engage in the luxury of cooling off or to take the tranquilizing drug of gradualism. Now is the time to make real the promises of democracy. Now is the time to rise from the dark and desolate valley of segregation to the sunlit path of racial justice. Now is the time to lift our nation from the quicksands of racial injustice to the solid rock of brotherhood. Now is the time to make justice a reality for all of God's children.

It would be fatal for the nation to overlook the urgency of the moment. This sweltering summer of the Negro's legitimate discontent will not pass until there is an invigorating autumn of freedom and equality. Nineteen sixty-three is not an end, but a beginning. And those who hope that the Negro needed to blow off steam and will now be content will have a rude awakening if the nation returns to business as usual. And there will be neither rest nor tranquility in America until the Negro is granted his citizenship rights. The whirlwinds of revolt will continue to shake the foundations of our nation until the bright day of justice emerges.

But there is something that I must say to my people, who stand on the warm threshold which leads into the palace of justice: In the process of gaining our rightful place, we must not be guilty of wrongful deeds. Let us not seek to satisfy our thirst for freedom by drinking from the cup of bitterness and hatred. We must forever conduct our struggle on the high plane of dignity and discipline. We must not allow our creative protest to degenerate into physical violence. Again and again, we must rise to the majestic heights of meeting physical force with soul force.

The marvelous new militancy which has engulfed the Negro community must not lead us to a distrust of all white people, for many of our white brothers, as evidenced by their presence here today, have come to realize that their destiny is tied up with our destiny. And they have come to realize that their freedom is inextricably bound to our freedom.

We cannot walk alone.

And as we walk, we must make the pledge that we shall always march ahead.

We cannot turn back.

There are those who are asking the devotees of civil rights, When will you be satisfied? We can never be satisfied as long as the Negro is the victim of the unspeakable horrors of police brutality. We can never be satisfied as long as our bodies, heavy with the fatigue of travel, cannot gain lodging in the motels of the highways and the hotels of the cities. *We cannot be satisfied as long as the negro's basic mobility is from a smaller ghetto to a larger one. We can never be satisfied as long as our children are stripped of their self-hood and robbed of their dignity by signs stating: For Whites Only.* We cannot be satisfied as long as a Negro in Mississippi cannot vote and a Negro in New York believes he has nothing for which to vote. No, no, we are not satisfied, and we will not be satisfied until justice rolls down like waters, and righteousness like a mighty stream.¹

I am not unmindful that some of you have come here out of great trials and tribulations. Some of you have come fresh from narrow jail cells. And some of you have come from areas where your quest -- quest for freedom left you battered by the storms of persecution and staggered by the winds of police brutality. You have been the veterans of creative suffering. Continue to work with the faith that unearned suffering is redemptive. Go back to Mississippi, go back to Alabama, go back to South Carolina, go back to Georgia, go back to Louisiana, go back to the slums and ghettos of our northern cities, knowing that somehow this situation can and will be changed.

Let us not wallow in the valley of despair, I say to you today, my friends.

And so even though we face the difficulties of today and tomorrow, I still have a dream. It is a dream deeply rooted in the American dream.

I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal.

I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia, the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slave owners will be able to sit down together at the table of brotherhood.

I have a dream that one day even the state of Mississippi, a state sweltering with the heat of injustice, sweltering with the heat of oppression, will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice.

I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character.

I have a dream today!

I have a dream that one day, down in Alabama, with its vicious racists, with its governor having his lips dripping with the words of interposition and nullification -- one day right there in Alabama little black boys and black girls will be able to join hands with little white boys and white girls as sisters and brothers.

I have a dream today!

I have a dream that one day every valley shall be exalted, and every hill and mountain shall be made low, the rough places will be made plain, and the crooked places will be made straight; and the glory of the Lord shall be revealed and all flesh shall see it together.2

This is our hope, and this is the faith that I go back to the South with.

With this faith, we will be able to hew out of the mountain of despair a stone of hope. With this faith, we will be able to transform the jangling discords of our nation into a beautiful symphony of brotherhood. With this faith, we will be able to work together, to pray together, to struggle together, to go to jail together, to stand up for freedom together, knowing that we will be free one day.

And this will be the day -- this will be the day when all of God's children will be able to sing with new meaning:

My country 'tis of thee, sweet land of liberty, of thee I sing.

Land where my fathers died, land of the Pilgrim's pride,

From every mountainside, let freedom ring!

And if America is to be a great nation, this must become true.

And so let freedom ring from the prodigious hilltops of New Hampshire.

Let freedom ring from the mighty mountains of New York.

Let freedom ring from the heightening Alleghenies of Pennsylvania.

Let freedom ring from the snow-capped Rockies of Colorado.

Let freedom ring from the curvaceous slopes of California.

But not only that:

Let freedom ring from Stone Mountain of Georgia.

Let freedom ring from Lookout Mountain of Tennessee.

Let freedom ring from every hill and molehill of Mississippi.

From every mountainside, let freedom ring.

And when this happens, and when we allow freedom ring, when we let it ring from every village and every hamlet, from every state and every city, we will be able to speed up that day when all of God's children, black men and white men, Jews and Gentiles, Protestants and Catholics, will be able to join hands and sing in the words of the old Negro spiritual:

Free at last! Free at last!

Thank God Almighty, we are free at last!"


s_v <- get_sentences(mlk)

sentiment_vector <- get_sentiment(s_v, method = "bing")
summary(sentiment_vector)
##    Min. 1st Qu.  Median    Mean 3rd Qu.    Max. 
## -3.0000 -0.5000  0.0000  0.3165  1.0000  4.0000
plot(sentiment_vector, type ="l", main ="Plot Trajectory", xlab = "Narrative Time", ylab = "Emotional Valence") 

nrc_data <- get_nrc_sentiment(s_v)

barplot(sort(colSums(prop.table(nrc_data[, 1:8]))), horiz = T, cex.names = 0.7, las = 1, main = "Emotions", xlab = "Percentage", col = 1:8)

head(nrc_data)
##   anger anticipation disgust fear joy sadness surprise trust negative
## 1     0            1       0    0   2       0        0     3        0
## 2     0            2       0    0   2       0        1     0        0
## 3     1            1       0    0   1       1        1     1        2
## 4     0            1       0    0   1       1        0     0        1
## 5     0            0       0    0   0       1        0     0        1
## 6     1            0       1    1   0       4        0     0        4
##   positive
## 1        3
## 2        3
## 3        1
## 4        1
## 5        0
## 6        0
barplot(sort(colSums(prop.table(nrc_data[, 9:10]))), horiz = T, cex.names = 0.7, las = 1, main = "Emotions", xlab = "Percentage", col = 9:10)

library(ggplot2)
## 
## Attaching package: 'ggplot2'
## 
## The following object is masked from 'package:NLP':
## 
##     annotate

p <- ggplot(aes(x=negative), data=nrc_data)

p + geom_histogram()
## stat_bin: binwidth defaulted to range/30. Use 'binwidth = x' to adjust this.

p <- ggplot(aes(x=negative, y=positive), data=nrc_data)
p + geom_point()